1. Despite the efforts to resolve the 35 years long Maoist movement in the Indian Subcontinent the violence has been continuing and we are witnessing a gradual but perceptible increase.
2. Intelligence reports and captured literature from the Maoist bases have revealed that the Maoist groups in India have established linkages with many groups within and outside India. The linkages can be classified as those :-
(a) With Indian Terrorist Groups.
(b) With Regional Terrorist Groups.
(c) With International Terrorist Groups and Organisations.
Links with Indian Terrorist Groups : Let us studythe Links with Indian terrorist groups first.
(a) J&K Terrorist Groups : Maoist spokespersonson many occasions have openly supported the actions and cause of the J & K terrorist groups. The Lakshar-e-Toiba terrorists who carried out the attack on the American Centre at Kolkata in 2001 had escaped to Jharkhand and had taken refuge in a Maoist sympathiser’s house in Ranchi. In return, the J&K terrorist organisation who are well trained in Explosive Devices and sophisticated arms, impart training to the Maoist groups.
(b) North-Eastern Insurgent Groups: Intelligence agencies have been reporting linkages between Maoist elements and the insurgent groups of North East i.e. ULFA, NSCN andPLA. The North Eastern insurgent group likePLA& NSCN had followed the Maoist ideology and were even trained and supported by China in the 60s and 70s. The common ideological linkages and aspirations to fight against the Indian state have helped them to share info, develop linkages and provide logistics support.
Links with Regional Groups: Let us see the links with regional groups.
(a) Links with Nepal Maoists. The linkwith the
Nepal Maoists is probably the most dangerous. The joint operation by the Maoists of India and Nepal involving nearly 400 maoists on 22 June 2005 at Madhubani and East Champaran Dist on a police post and two banks was a landmark event. There are enough instances and evidence that there is a great deal of co-ordination, co-operation, sharing of intelligence and exchange of resources between the maoists of India and Nepal.
(b) Links with LTTE. In the late nineties Maoists approached LTTE for sophisticated arms and ammunition. LTTE agreed, but asked for a heavy price which was beyond the financial resources of Maoists. With the ever increasing capacity to purchase and hire the expertise of LTTE, it is not long before we find trained ‘human bombs’ and even highly sophisticated weapons with Maoists.
International Linkages: Finally the international linkages.
(a) Member of RIM (Revolutionary International Movement) : Revolutionary International Movement or RIM is an organisation which encourages and supports the Maoist groups across the world. This is a US based group which carries out ideological campaign. A Turkish Left wing Extremist group maintains the website and publishes journals and literature for international consumption. The CPI (Maoist) is a member of the RIM and is listed on its website thus offering it an opportunity to access the world and be known in international forum.
(b) Linkages with Left Wing Philippine Groups : A few media and intelligence reports from South East Asia stated that the Maoists in India had developed links with the Left Wing Extremist of Philippines and through them with other groups of South East Asia.
These linkages have lead to the formation of a fearsome organisation and a large number of groups which are operating in the country with impunity.
There are a large number of Maoist groups in India which are either Maoist, or strongly influenced by Maoism. We have grouped them into three categories based on their profile of violent activities. The first category being the most violent, while the second adopting the electoral path and the third category remaining ambivalent. Now let us see the categories one by one.
The first category comprises of those parties which are already engaged in armed struggle, or support the idea of participating in armed struggle either immediately, or else after short-term preparations are complete. This category includes:-
(a) CPI(ML), People’s War Group.
(b) CPIMaoist Communist Center (I).
(c) CPIJanashakti (Rajanna Group).
(d) CPI(M-L) Naxalbari
At the other end of the spectrum are the parties that seem to have effectively abandoned the whole idea of people's war or armed revolution, and now focus on reformist struggle. The most prominent party in this category isCPI(M-L) Liberation. It has more than 5000 full time members and claims a total membership of over 2.5 lakhs. The Party is strongest in Assam, Bihar and Jharkhand, though it has units in many other states like Pashchim Bang.
In between these two extremes there are a large No of ambivalent parties which favour what they call the "mass revolutionary line" or "Mao's mass line". Most of these parties favour people's war at some point, but they think that the ground is not yet prepared for it. Some of the "mass revolutionary line" parties are:-
(a) Communist Party of India (Marxist Leninist).
(b) Unity Centre of Communist Revolutionaries of India.
(c) CPI(M-L) New Democracy [this party seems to be leaning more toward guerrilla warfare now.]
(d) Communist Party Reorganization Centre of India (M-L)
While most of the parties have been ambivalent about their role and philosophy, those in the first category yield the maximum clout, are the best organised and are the real threat to our internal security which has prompted this study group to focus more on this storm gathering on the nations security horizon.
NEXT : PART 3 - Conti.
About Brig. Hemant Mahajan
Brigadier Hemant Mahajan (YSM) joined armed forces since 1973. Started his military life as an officer with the ‘7 Maratha Light Infantry’. Brig. Mahajan has served in the most sensitive areas like Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, North Eastern states. Importantly Brig. Mahajan had an experience of serving his duty in highest and tough warzone like Kargil, handling peace situation in furious Punjab after the ‘Operational Blue Star’ and the Ayodhya region. Along with ‘Youth Seva Medal’, Brig. Mahajan is recipient of various Military awards for his excellent track record.