Most of the thinking on economic development in India was derived from the Western models without taking into account the Indian society and the ground realities in India. The interpretations of the realities and ground realities of the Indian society were made by those whose upbringing and education had been based on the Western educational system in India. Indianisation had not yet begun.
The Five Year Plan document was considered as an advisory essay, which meant that its recommendations were subjected to governments’ prerogatives of political promises ceded to the electorate. Sixthly, very large public sector was encouraged and preferred without substantial administrative reinforcements. Seventhly, sub-regional administrative reorganization was ushered in with the institution of Panchayat Raj establishments (Community Development Programs thrown in to the background) and the cooperative credit structure created and revitalized to cater to the needs of agricultural production. Eighthly, during emergency period in the country, there emerged one more comprehensive “20 point program”. Ninthly, the enforcement agencies continued to exist and discharge their functions with a colonial bias and culture. Tenthly, a plethora of laws, directives and circulars shot out for the field in plenty at the center as well as at the state level, paved the way towards confusions and more importantly, corruption. Eleventh, since independence the parliamentary democracy is arranged through regular general elections to the Lok Sabha which constitutes popular will which is supposed to be sovereign.
The post-independence era of India seems to have been influenced by the following factors:
Idea of a Growth Model:
It becomes imperative to define and explain the basics of the concept of growth. There are different definitions of growth in economics, political science as well as public administration sciences. Emphasis differs. Preferences differ. Focuses differ.
Professor Dr. Sunil Date ( formerly professor and head of the Department of political science , Dr.B.A.Marathwada University, Aurangabad, India ) has explained ‘ development’ , ‘growth’ , and ‘ change ‘ . According to him ‘growth’ is directed, predetermined level or stage of achievement in the economic activity. ‘Development’ is value-loaded which means that the benefit stage either climbs upward or descends down in the economic strata when it is described as good or bad. “Change ‘is a neutral condition or situation where the ascent or decline is silent on its reception or perception. The idea of developing an individual or the society is building a complete man who will establish his family and thereby the society with convictions. . The construction of a man, a person, his personality begins at his home. This is true of anyone, anywhere in any part of the planet. However, there are several schools of thought. One, a person considered as a cultural unit, and secondly, as a biological specie, a material commodity. Two factors are responsible for such a construction –first, the family and secondly, the State.
It has become imperative to think of ‘growth’ from noneconomic dimensions. The following constitutes “growth model-political dimensions “:
There are some pre-conditions required to allow growth to happen. Gap between the Idea of India and the Indian State is required to be bridged for effective and meaningful programmes. Impact of the planning and programmes need to be reflected in the society.
One can always note the difference between the Wild West and dogmatic orientalism. Life became more and more statutory which bequeathed circumscribed growth, perhaps a lopsided one. The “human face” seemed to have lost from the contents.
Religion and family were the first to be beaten. Religion? Religion is not confined to worshipping God, and several other rituals, of temples, mosques and churches. It is essentially an emotion. An Emotion of being related to a pious hope!
One has to understand that for those who live life with a scientific temper and rationalism, for them the life is not a problem .It is for those who are devoid of scientific temperament; religion is the first and perhaps the only hope in their life. It is inhuman to ignore and rule out such of millions and millions peoples, it will amount to irreligious disdain.
The second casualty in such a development process is the “family”. It has started appearing to be an endangered species. The modern individual appears helpless in this regard. The nemesis emerged with a consequent weakening of the institution of marriage. This led to social unrest in the society. The State could not remain a silent spectator. What followed was a vicious race without an ending finishing line. It is a debatable point, but will it be an exaggeration to submit that the social facts such as mother, father, son, daughter, wife, brother, etc seem to be left merely as ‘ ideas’ ?
Development theme is required to be studied in the light of above.
Growth is directly linked with changes seen in the life of the ordinary individuals. Such a change is from good to better and from better to the best or even best to worst. It may be in the field of economy activities or the other way round. For a common man it is two times adequate meals in plenty, availability in abundance of the essential commodities in the market and liberal and easy opportunities in choosing one’s own favorable occupation in order to enrich wealth of the self as well as that of the region.
Professor Dr. P.G.Marvania, Department of Economics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot has Professor Dr.P.G.Marvania, Department.of Economics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot has-
Political Leadership: The meaning of political leadership is the initiatives and personal qualities displayed by the workers functioning in the political parties and those in the government. In this regard the meaning of political initiative may be summarized as following:
Preponderance of political agenda:
A case of Gujarat administration:
There are three important imbalances which characterize development all over the world: ( i ) imbalance between finance and real economy, ( ii ) macroeconomic imbalance between major economies, and ( iii ) ecological imbalance as a result of pattern of economic growth. (Source: Guj.Govt Socio-Eco Review, 2010-11).
Behind these generalized conclusions are the shrewd ideas of planning and its further execution by the pragmatic Gujarat planners. An outstanding feature of the planning process in Gujarat is the united, devoted leadership with a mission of that of the Gujarat Government. The Government there seriously means development when they announce it. The bureaucracy there in the Government, the top officers, the political leadership and even the participating beneficiary needy citizens all and every one vows for the development and its fruits for real.
In view of the global features, the Gujarat Government carefully drew a programme in which the serious constraints experienced by the beneficiaries such as availability of financial credit for the applicants and cash components in hand were resolved much in favour of the beneficiaries thereby strengthening the status of the needy applicants. The Gujarat Government made the credit available to the needy on a simplified procedural method and the taxation at a bit reduced rate. There is a school of thought on planning process in India which believes in that the entire planning process in India has been a faulty beginning and devoid of mission – both at the national and the state level right since 1950. The concept was highly dominated by Western styled programmers whereas the ground realities in the Indian context were quite a different one.
While referring to the abovementioned source it is submitted that the Gujarat Government confronted itself with-- (i )inflation control, ( ii ) increased consumption spending, ( iii ) adequate liquidity, ( iv ) industrial development and ( v ) educational infrastructure. At the policy making level, it was made problem centric. Such an attitude itself boosted the morale of the needy to deploy his energy to the development.
The political leadership on the other hand made arrangements to make the administrative machinery aware of the ground realities by organizing their ‘chintan meets “and “Karma yogi Abhiyan “to galvanize them. A recently completed research survey claims that these devices have a tremendous support amongst the voting citizens.
The legislative intentions to the development were also clear when the Gujarat Legislature took care to facilitate the entitlements of the citizens while empowering the bureaucracy to ensure efficient public service. Depoliticisation of the implementation of the official programmes, restoration of due authority to the bureaucracy, inducting the principle of political intervention for fair, legitimate and purposeful implementation of the development schemes in Gujarat need a wide national debate. Such a debate on development need not form a basis for political mudslinging with political calculations aiming at political vendetta.
The behavioral pattern of those involved in the planning and implementation of the government policies and programmes too has decisive relevance in the success of the programmes. The world has witnessed how an honest socio-political leadership and the bureaucracy can bring about a change in the lives of the citizens as evidenced in Gujarat.
The Gujarat political leadership confronted itself with a challenging task of identifying issues and problems faced by the citizens and their just expectations. An integrated approach of economic considerations in order to bring about economic development was thought of. The most important ones were identified as:
(i) Gyan Shakti (importance of wisdom and education),
(ii) Raksha Shakti (internal and international security aspects),
(iii) Jal Shakti (importance of natural resources such as water management),
(IV) Urja Shakti (importance of energy based and related considerations),
(v) Jan Shakti (effective man power planning),
(vi) Deploying wealth to ensure health (importance of public health),
(vii) Evening courts (importance of justice in time without undue haste or delay).
The expectations and demands of the voters are articulated in party-manifestos and electoral promises of the political parties. The economic considerations are not ignored or overlooked leave alone undermined. A good political leadership weighs all pros and cons while arranging political party and governmental programmes. The political parties are entitled to take such measures. The electorate in Gujarat reaffirmed their faith thrice in the growth model which was administered carefully by the contesting party.
A case study of political leadership in Gujarat highlights the following characteristics:
The political leadership, the bureaucracy, the citizens and the planners, all of them united involved themselves into the development task. Development is not the responsibility of the government alone, public participation in it at each stage is required. The secret of the considerable success of the Gujarat Government planning is that the political leadership there in Gujarat has succeeded in galvanizing the ruling party workers, the voters and the entire governmental machinery, even the opposition parties- all aiming at –one point programme of upliftment of the poorest of the poor in the process of nation building.
Narendra Modi seems to have seriously given thought to the theme, principles and pragmatic executive action plan of developmental planning.
Growth Model is an integrated programme comprising --
Growth Model for a comprehensive socio-eco-cultural development of the society in general and the individual in particular is as screened above. The question raised is whether any growth model is feasible or could emerge successful unless the model aims at transforming the individual from within , who is the ultimate beneficiary , in order to achieve growth. Development is possible if the individual citizen undergoes a systematic change. As pronounced in the ancient text , every individual was required to discharge his ‘ kartaya dharma’ , in other words the individual must realize his responsibilities – as a father, as a brother, as a son, as a husband, as a voter, as a public servant, as a representative, as a law abiding citizen . He is not merely a political animal but he has to be a cultured social creature of the society. A new citizen is required to be born. A new citizen can create a new society. A well equipped individual reinforces the society. A strong new nation is born. To quote my Professor ( late ) V.M.Sirsikar , of the University of Pune , it is , “Politics is development and all development is politics “ has to be the key to the growth.
The theme of ‘Growth Model” could be discussed as ‘Growth Model –new horizons’ as following:
A ) Features of dynamism of development in Gujarat, ( b ) Politics of development, ( c ) Administrative responses in the State, ( d ) Adaptability of the ‘Growth Model’ in India.
(The paper is partially based on the “Dynamics of Developmental Administration –A Case study of Gujarat Development Model : 2000-2008” a joint research project of the Saurashtra University,Rajkot and Vivekanand Institute of Social Sciences Research, Pune 9; e.mail : [email protected]; Mob.07276888456 & 020-24230345)