New Delhi, April 27: The India Meteorological Department (IMD) is responsible for monitoring, detection and forecasting of weather including severe weather events such as cyclones, heavy rainfall, extreme temperature etc. It provides forecast of these events at national, regional and state levels through its three tier structure. In order to provide early warning of severe weather events, IMD has setup a network of state meteorological centres to have better coordination with a state and other agencies.In his statement, Minister of State for Science & Technology and Earth Sciences, Y.S.Chowdary Lok Sabha today stated that IMD has operationalized its location specific now-casting weather service across the country. This service activity currently covers 156 urban centres on experimental basis under which now-cast of severe weather phenomena like thunderstorms, heavy rainfall from lows/depressions over the land is issued in 3-6hrs range.
Origin, development/movement of severe weather phenomena is regularly monitored through Doppler Weather Radars (DWRs) and with all available other observing systems viz., Automatic Weather Station-AWSs, Automatic Rain Gauge – ARGs, Automatic Weather Observing Systems-AWOS, satellite derived wind vectors, temperature, moisture fields etc.
Over the last few years, Government has initiated a comprehensive modernization programme for IMD covering upgraded observation systems, advanced data assimilation tools, advanced communication and IT infrastructure, high performance computing systems and intensive/sophisticated training of IMD personnel to facilitate the implementation of advanced global/regional/meso-scale prediction models for improving the accuracy of weather forecasts in all temporal and spatial scales and for quick dissemination of weather forecast assessments/warnings to the users.
Operational implementation of improved forecast suite of models after the commissioning of the High Performance Computing (HPC) systems have enhanced the weather forecasting capacities through assimilating all available global satellite radiance data for the production of forecast products at 22km grid globally and 9km/3km grid over India/regional/mega city domains.
Recently, under the National Monsoon Mission initiative, the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), Hyderabad and National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF), NOIDA have embarked upon to build a state-of-the-art coupled ocean-atmospheric climate model for a) improved prediction of monsoon rainfall on extended range to seasonal time scale i.e. 16 days to one season and b) improved prediction of temperature, rainfall and extreme weather events on short to medium range time scale (up to 15 days) so that forecast skill gets quantitatively improved further for operational services of IMD. National Center for Seismology (NCS) is monitoring earthquake activity in and around the county round the clock through its national seismological network. There is no proven scientific technique worldwide exists so far to predict/forecast the occurrence of earthquakes with reasonable degree of accuracy in space, time and magnitude.
Concurrently, with the implementation of District Level Agro-Meteorological Advisory services, India has seen improved agriculture performance in the rain fed farming which covers 60% of arable land in the country. Incremental profit due to GKMS is assessed at 25% of the net income. Potential Annual Economic profit by using GKMS by 24% of the community cultivating 4-principle crops (wheat; paddy; sugarcane; cotton) in 2010 was assessed at Rs. 38,463 Crores (when 2.0 million farmers were subscribed to SMS service), the annual profit rose to Rs. 42,000 Crores in 2015 (when 11.5 million farmers have been subscribed to SMS service).
This profit for top 11 Principal Crops was assessed as 56,310 Crores and top 28 Principal Crops was assessed as Rs. 67,000 Crores in 2015. The study suggests that GKMS has the potential of generating net economic benefit up to Rs.3.3 lakh crores on the 4-principal crops alone when Agro-Meteorological advisory is fully utilized by 90.3 million agriculture dependent households.