Source: News Bharati English07 Apr 2016 20:43:12
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
A role model in public administration
Can, the in-put of a socio-cultural organization such as the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh be considered a sort of public administration agency in the field of socio-cultural development in general and socialization of individual personality-growth in particular?
Public administration aims at bringing about economic development through the device of civil service and its administration. Deployment of bureaucracy at different echelons in the administrative set-up keeping the individual in focus.
Broadly stating, the principles of management of both the functionaries are in no way different from each other. POSDCORB (Planning, Organization, Staffing, Directing, Coordination, Reporting and Budgeting) - the famous term in the field of science of public administration is considered as the basis of the organization and management of both the two functions.
There is nothing new in its application. POSDCORB is the device in the process of governance of the State and its application is equally relevant to the functioning of RSS.
Governance in the process of State administration heavily depends on the tenet of ‘POSDCORB’, RSS functions on the same set of principles. POSDCORB in the context of State governance is responsible to the maintenance of law and order governed by the principle of rule of law in the legal framework of ‘law in the State’, it is accountable to the people (legislature), however enforcement is neither the function of the RSS nor the responsibility to maintain law and order in the State.
After all RSS is not a statutory unit. It is essentially a socio-cultural NGO (non government organization).
“POSDCORB is an acronym widely used in the field of Management and Public Administration that reflects the classic view of administrative management. Largely drawn from the work of French industrialist Henri Fayol, it first appeared in a 1937 staff paper by Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick written for the Brownlow Committee. The acronym stands for steps in the administrative process: Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Co-Coordinating, Reporting and budgeting.”
Fayol's fourteen principles of management are as follows: Division of Work, Authority and Responsibility, Discipline , Unity of Command , Unity of Direction , Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest , Remuneration of Personnel , Centralization ,Scalar Chain (line of authority with peer level communication) , Order , Equity ,Stability of Tenure of Personnel , Initiative Esprit de Corps .
If we carefully note the above , with reference to the State- governance and the functioning of RSS , every point mentioned therein is meticulously followed by both the applicants. In fact any NGO is required to follow the abovementioned tenets carefully lest they would fail .
However, these principles were criticized by the theoreticians later in 1940’s and 1960’s. It can be summed up as, “as early as 1938, literature began appearing in the field of Public Administration challenging the validity of POSDCORB and the concept that there could even be a rigid set of principles in administration. In 1946 and 1947, prominent Public Administration scholars such as Robert Dahl, Dwight Waldo, and Herbert A. Simon released articles and books criticizing POSDCORB and the principles notion. Simon's article Proverbs of Administration challenges the POSDCORB principles by stating "For almost every principle one can find an equally plausible and acceptable contradictory principle." Among other criticisms, Simon states that the POSDCORB principles are an oversimplification of administration. Simon's criticisms largely center around span of control and unity of command, stating that sometimes it is necessary for a subordinate to receive guidance or directives from more than one source, as well as Gulick's division of labor concepts “.
The criticism was a consequence of fast changing nature of economy and industrial revolution all over the world. Great depression periods, disasters of W.W.II , post World War II , devastation of Europe , liquidation of different military and imperial colonies spread all over the world- all these factors led to an added tenet of ‘ welfare economic policies and public administration ‘ incorporated in the process of governance.
The environment of economic development policies focusing the poor and the deprived ones who in the early 20th Century appeared fascinated by the Bolshevik revolution , soon realized their frustration and returned to the liberal republican democratic fold. I think, the emphasis shifted from bare economic development to nationalistic and cultural traits.
The impact of the colonial rule on the ‘ruled’ led to defacing and twisting the respective histories of the native communities all over. Most of the ‘ruled’ communities succumbed to the foreign European and Islamic pressures and acquiescingly embraced their foreign traits. Some of these did not succumb. India was one who tried to resist and partly succeeded, thanks to the ancient cultural roots. Roots of RSS could be traced in this preservative nationalist attitude when Dr.Keshav Baliram Hedgewar from Nagpur, a town in Central India , emerged as its champion, as a sharp response to the Macaulay an tendencies. Dr.Hedgewar cannot be considered as a typical ‘chauvinistic’ patriotic politician since he never spoke of any sort of Hindu superiority , all he wanted to submit was the existence of the ancient roots of the Indian civil society. He proclaimed that the majority Hindu community was competent to protect these roots of the ancient Indian civil society if they remained united. There was no chauvinism whatsoever in this submission. Dr.Hedgewar was a well qualified person , medical graduate and his early team mates too were well versed with the indigenous principles of modern management ( without referring to Fayol and Gullick and Urwick ! ) . Perhaps he contemplated and visualized an NGO which would function on these principles of modern management.
RSS is always considered as a very effective organization in implementing its decisions. It plans big programmes and it is implemented effectively. Communications are issued at the top level and they are transmitted at the lowest rung in the shortest possible period. The RSS has a well-oiled , trained man power whose total obedience and commitment happens to be the main cause of the success of the organization. The recruitment of these volunteers at the lowest ‘shakha’ level is carefully groomed and carried with great efforts . The training of these recruits commences at the ‘shakha’ level right in their youth. Inculcating the values of character building , honesty , dedication , commitment and ‘nation first’ attitude among the cadres and also the leadership qualities has always been of top priority in the organization. These qualities are imbibed consciously and with deliberate plans and programmes. Maintaining high quality health- card is specially taken care of. The first, second and third year OTC are the programmes which take care of these objectives. In modern way of expression it is a personality development programmed and courses in leadership development. Advocates of RSS maintain that the RSS personnel should lead the society. They are the volunteers in times of natural catastrophies. It is important to note that the RSS personnel have time and again proved this in the society. The entire organization and management of the RSS is transparent and beyond doubts. Those who feel that its operations are secretive and their activities are obscure and concealing , they think this way because they do not have experience in functioning in an organization responsibly. (Such idle persons indulge excessively in the realm of RTI world.)
The best type of service is to remove the basic disease of the loss of national consciousness and cohesion and build a strong, well-organized and self-sustaining national life. Golwalkar Guruji .
The above vision has always been of top priority of the RSS in its approach to all the programmes This approach is not a chauvinistic one.
On the contrary , the General Secretary of RSS in his Annual Report which he submitted to its Annual General Body meeting held in the Nagor ( Rajasthan ) meeting in March 2016 expressed serious concern over the national scenario and submitted as following. I quote---
- 1. Security Agencies are target of anti national forces: - Repeated attacks being made targeting the Security Agencies in the last few decades, has become a big challenge to our security arrangements. Our security forces have been successful in repulsing all such attempts made by our enemies, through their valiant fight. The latest example of such attacks is the one made against our Pathankot Air Force Base recently.
It is necessary to further tighten the security arrangements and make them foolproof so as to ensure that such incidents are not repeated anymore. Reviewing the efficiency of the Security Forces, the materials at their disposal, as also the officers in charge, necessary changes should be made.
- To curb activities such as Illegal migration, smuggling, Pak-inspired terrorism, such activities should be strictly observed for taking remedial action. With this view, it is necessary to review the infrastructural facilities to develop border areas, border security, and the materials, from time to time.
It seems that Pakistan’s India policy is decided by the Military Establishment and not by the elected government. The incidents from Mumbai to Pathankot testify this. Presently, the whole world is concerned about the growing menace of terrorism.
- Growing Communal frenzy in the country: - Incidents of violence and terrorist attacks at different places in the country have become a matter of grave concern for the patriotic and peace-loving people, and the law and order machinery. Under the pretext of small and big issues, people at different places, armed with weapons taking to the roads in large numbers and creating an atmosphere of fear and tension, as happened in Malda, has become endemic now a days.
Incidences of destruction of public and private property, attacking the police force throwing the rule of law to the winds, looting and burning of business establishments, especially those run by Hindus, had taken place. Political parties, giving up their policy of appeasement, should take such incidents seriously and cooperate to restore the law and order situation and peace. This will be possible only when political parties and the ruling parties shed their petty and parochial political interests, and make a combined effort in the right direction. No political party or person is more important than the national security. It is the responsibility of an efficient and strong government to instill confidence in the people about their security.
- University Campuses become hotbed of antinational activities: - In the last few months, reports about antinational and subversive activities in certain universities, has become a matter of concern. When renowned and premier universities, which are expected to groom patriotic citizens by imparting them the lessons of unity and integrity generate people who raise the slogan calling for breaking of and destroying the nation, this naturally becomes a matter of concern for the patriotic people. When they find certain political parties supporting such antinational elements, their concern grows further.
In the name of freedom of expression, how the slogans calling for the breaking up of and destruction of the nation, can be tolerated, and how the guilty, which had hatched the conspiracy to blow up the national Parliament, can be honored as martyrs? Doing so it, itself will be treated as an antinational act. Those who do such things have no faith in our Constitution, judiciary, Parliament, etc. These subversive elements have made these universities the centres of their activities for long.
It is very delightful that the moment the reports about these incidents became public, there was all round condemnation from everywhere. We expect from the Central and State governments to deal strictly with such antinational and antisocial forces and ensure the sanctity and cultural atmosphere by not allowing our educational institutions to become centers of political activities.
Such incidents that pollute the social environment are sure to affect the social life.
The change that took place in the political sphere last year, has made people in Bharat and the Bharatiyas living abroad happy and proud. This mood has been discernible in programmes conducted by people of Indian origin in other world countries.
At the global level, the celebration of the “Yoga Day” by a majority of world nations is an indication of the acceptance of Bharatiya spiritual thought and way of life by the world at large.
The expectations of our people have naturally increased and an atmosphere of confidence has developed. Therefore we expect those who are in power to accelerate the process that has paved the way for this new-found confidence and make it more pronounced.
The acceptance the nationalist discourse has been gaining steadily and the resultant unease among the antinational and antisocial forces has come to light through certain recent incidents. The antinational activities at the Bhagyanagar (Hyderabad) University and the J.N.U. have thoroughly exposed their conspiracy.
Violent agitations in Gujarat and Haryana for the demand of reservation are not only a challenge to the administrative machinery, but will also weaken the social harmony and trust. Such incidents will certainly affect social life. This is a matter of grave concern for all. There should not be injustice or oppression of anybody, but the society should be vigilant and the administration should take strict action on the persons and organizations engaged in anti national activities in a planned manner. The only solution to such problems is well organized society.
The ever increasing public participation in our programmes and steady increase in the number of Shakhas are a matter of satisfaction for all of us. Now we are experiencing a favourable atmosphere everywhere.
Through well-planned efforts and hard work we will be able to transform the prevalent favorable atmosphere into concrete results. And if we move ahead with a firm resolve, the coming time will be ours; and this confidence itself is our strength.” Unquote.
The above reference is significant in two ways : First , the transparency shown in the affairs of the functioning of RSS in public view, and secondly , the policy views adopted by the General Body of the RSS. It is to be understood that the policy resolution mentioned as above , was the culmination of the deliberations on these topics right from the lowest rung i.e. ‘shakha’ and above levels. All of them are united , and they come together to discuss thread bare and reach a consensus. Dissents are withdrawn or surrendered once a consensus is arrived at.
POSDCORB is adopted at every level
RSS is known for its discipline, and the discipline is maintained by everybody in its united action. Freedom and liberty is paramount but its boundary is strictly adhered to , since they believe that freedom of dissent does not entail freedom of destruction. There is no freedom of arrogance or conceit. There is of course, always a danger of persecution by ‘majorityism’ . In political democracy a political minority has to learn to concede to the majority view. It is always the skill of the leadership which is required to bring about a delicate equilibrium in varying views in such situations.
In fact , it is a folly to describe RSS as a reactionary force , on the contrary it is a catalytic agent of a much progressive outlook, with a modern approach of building political society. Sans Western interpretation of the essentially European term ‘secularism’ , RSS is out and out a non-religious ( not anti religious ) organization which does not focus any religious celebration on its agenda . The atheists and pervert minded thinkers will find it difficult to understand these facts and the vision of a ‘nation’ . The pseudo modernists tend to break themselves from their own past , they are essentially anti-continuity existentialists species anarchists with faith in nothing. Atheism, in their opinion, is the final destination of human civilization. RSS ideology has faith in human civilization; it attaches more importance to human emotions and sentimental life. It is not a ‘robot ’.
The purpose of referring the Sarkaryavaha’s reported speech in the AGM of the RSS is to show as to how the outlook of RSS on national security issues is emotionally different from POSDCORB since POSDCORB essentially is neutral and indifferent to such issues. POSDCORB is supposed to be in the service of the ‘citizen’ for his welfare. RSS looks after the citizen’s emotional health by building his nationalist attitudes. POSDCORB is concerned with the citizen’s civil needs. RSS primarily aims at building one’s character and self-discipline in the process of personality development.. Moreover , the reported speech is also an example as to how the transparency of intentions and plans is maintained by the RSS. The said speech was flashed and reported on web within a couple of days. Where is the alleged secrecy?
RSS , thus , is a socio-cultural association of like-minded citizens seeking cultural welfare whose primary purpose is ‘character-building with the motto ---NATION FIRST.