Source: News Bharati English17 May 2016 11:48:26

Modi Government: Audit report of socio-cultural perspective- Year ||

Democratic parliamentary revolution of 26th May , 2014 in India will complete  two  years  of its successful commencement ushering in a new  era of development, under the reigns  of a single majority Party viz., Bharatiya  Janata  Party  at the central governance , on 26th May 2016 . The preceding half a century of mal-administration in India led to the much awaited ‘May 2014 democratic revolution’, which was a decisive articulation of frustration and anxious yearning for a minimum hope for a better life on the part of the citizenry.

Some time  earlier  to   the  assumption of power at  the Center  , the then Chief Minister of Gujarat, Narendra Modi ,while  delivering  an address  to a meeting of the members,  civil servants  and erudite  social  workers , organized  by the Pune Local Branch , of the Indian Institute of Public Administration   ( New Delhi ), held on 24th May 2008,  at Pune , had emphasized the following aspects in regard to the concept of ‘development’ and  ‘planning’ in  India   :

 ( a)  ill-conceived half a century  of  bad  planning  , (b) public  satisfaction , (c) changing/converting  ‘ file’  into ‘ life’, ( d ) ‘jyoti-gram’ scheme , (e ) new concept of ‘rurarban India ‘ , ( f ) broad-band  connectivity all over , ( g ) ‘e-governance ‘, ( h ) growing  growth rate , ( I ) ‘water management’ , ( j ) growth of agro-based sector , ( k ) ‘soil health card’  ( l ) involvement of bureaucracy , ( m ) ‘infant mortality rate—Human Development Index’, ( n ) tackling justice pendency, ( o ) synchronization of  ‘good governance’ , people’s participation’ and ‘ development process’ and ,( p ) planning without  considering  the  needs of the society  and  the ‘nation’ .

As a Chief Minister, Shri Narendra Modi had dreamt of the above which according to him, every citizen in the country was entitled to. The then Chief Minister had found fault with the planning process and its implementation in the country. He pointed out at the nexus between the bureaucratic leadership and the political leadership .He referred to the lack of ‘political will ‘on the part of the political leadership.

The  new Union government  at  the  outset ,  after  assuming  reigns of  power in  May 2014 , fixed the following  priority  areas for policy making and its execution .

1              Agriculture and farmer welfare

2              Rural sector

3              Social sector

4              Education skills and job creation

5              Infrastructure investment

6              Financial sector reforms

7              Governance reforms and ease of doing business

8              Fiscal discipline

9              Tax reforms to reduce compliance burden.

 (Source:  Business Standard)

Later, in  consonance  with  the  above  thinking , several key achievements were  attained  and  important  decisions  were  taken  in  due  course  of time by   Narendra Modi's government .  These  need  to be studied by those interested  by  maintaining  prudent  patience  without  clamoring for  instant  results. One must remember that something had gone wrong since the beginning, right from the day one of the economics and politics of independent India.

The  new  era of the post-parliamentary  revolution of May-2014 , witnessed  and  experienced  the  style of an unprecedented ruler  (i.e. the Prime Minister ) whose social  roots and  cultural background was  quite different  from his  predecessors. Macaulayan Congress party-men  who  ruled for  most of the preceding  years, although  are entitled  for a few  clapping hands for their  initiating several development  measures in early  period, the  corrupt  elements within the Party   and  in the Government, made  a mess of the entire process of  governance. Modi has before him the task of cleansing the environment and putting things at the proper places.

The  initial  two decades after the independence  witnessed  the  era of ‘politics of principles’ , followed by  late  Mrs. Indira  Gandhi’s  ‘politics of manipulations’  overshadowed by  caste considerations. Caste  ceased to be a social  factor, it became an  instrument  of acquiring  political power  by converting  itself   into a consolidated  ‘vote  bank’ , nurtured  by the national  parties  as well as  regional  smaller  satrap  leaders and  their  parties.

It  is  important  to study  the  steps taken by  the Modi Government as  matters of  correctional  measures in the process  of planning and  its subsequent  implementation. Modi  Government removed  the  irrelevant  and  unconnected  issues  in  the  planning  process and  tried  to integrate them  judiciously. At  the outset the outdated ‘Planning  Commission’  was  abolished by  substituting  it  by well thought out  ‘National  Institution of Transforming  India  Aayog’ –(‘NITI Aayog’) —the  first step towards the  integrated  approach to  planning. Planning  for economic  development was considered  keeping  the  society  and  social  facts  in  view—a rare  approach .

The  functions  and  goals  , in fact  a road map  of development of  India  through  the NITI are  enumerated  as  following  :

NITI AAYOG (NATIONAL INSTITUTION FOR TRANSFORMING INDIA)

  • To evolve a shared vision of national development priorities sectors and strategies with the active involvement of States in the light of national objectives
  • To foster cooperative federalism through structured support initiatives and mechanisms with the States on a continuous basis, recognizing that strong States make a strong nation
  • To develop mechanisms to formulate credible plans at the village level and aggregate these progressively at higher levels of government
  • To ensure, on areas that are specifically referred to it, that the interests of national security are incorporated in economic strategy and policy
  • To pay special attention to the sections of our society that may be at risk of not benefitting adequately from economic progress
  • To design strategic and long term policy and programme frameworks and initiatives, and monitor their progress and their efficacy
  • The lessons learnt through monitoring and feedback will be used for making innovative improvements, including necessary mid-course corrections
  • To provide advice and encourage partnerships between key stakeholders and national and international like-minded Think tanks, as well as educational and policy research institutions
  • To create a knowledge, innovation and entrepreneurial support system through a collaborative community of national and international experts, practitioners and other partners
  • To offer a platform for resolution of inter-sectoral and inter¬ departmental issues in order to accelerate the implementation of the development agenda
  • To maintain a state-of-the-art Resource Centre, be a repository of research on good governance and best practices in sustainable and equitable development as well as help their dissemination to stake-holders
  • To actively monitor and evaluate the implementation of programmes and initiatives, including the identification of the needed resources so as to strengthen the probability of success and scope of delivery
  • To focus on technology up gradation and capacity building for implementation of programmes and initiatives
  • To undertake other activities as may be necessary in order to further the execution of the national development agenda, and the objectives mentioned above
  • National Institute of Labour Economics Research and Development (NILERD)     

In  the light  of above it will be  worthwhile to  take into account the  important decisions  and  achievements  of the Modi  Government during  2014  -- 2016 : 

  • Jan Dhan Yojana: More than 15 crore bank accounts opened, over 10 crore RuPay debit cards issued, with life cover and pension schemes
  • Corporate sector adopts Prime Minister's ‘Swachha Bharat’ mission with promise of complete sanitation by 2019
  • Cooking gas now under direct-cash-benefit transfer scheme, with potential saving of $5 billion annually in subsidies
  • Diesel prices de-regulated.
  • Foreign equity in rail infrastructure allowed, without limit.
  • Foreign equity cap in defence rose to 49 per cent and 74 per cent in case of technology transfer.
  • Fast-tracking of defence purchases: 36 Rafael fighters purchase deal finalized and orders for several long-pending purchases placed
  • Foreign equity cap in insurance and pension sectors increased to 49 per cent
  • Nod for IPOs/FPOs by banks to raise funds, as long as government equity remains 52 per cent or over
  • Nod for real estate and infrastructure investment trusts, with tax benefits
  • Cabinet nod for Prime Minister's 100 Smart Cities Project launched
  • $130 billion proposed spending on railways over five years on schemes including high-speed trains including a bullet train
  • Definitive steps forward in introducing pan-India goods and services regime, the Bill yet to be passed in the Rajya Sabha. INC wouldn’t agree to pass it.
  • Successful conclusion of two rounds of coal block auctions, more lined up
  • Impasse in mining sector ended with passage of new bill for its regulation and development
  • Successful conclusion of auctions for telecom spectrum for mobile telephony and broadband
  • Launch of 'Make-in-India', 'Digital India' and 'Skill India' initiatives with focus on defense and electronics, primarily to create jobs.
  • Mudra Bank launched with Rs 20,000 crores corpus to extend loans of between Rs 50,000 and Rs 10 lakhs to small entrepreneurs
  • Commencement of divestment programme in public sector companies
  • Disbanding of various ministerial groups for faster decision-making
  • Single-window scheme for various clearances to steel, coal and power projects
  • Price stabilization fund set up for agricultural -commodities to check inflation
  • Warehouse Infrastructure Fund with Rs 5,000 crores corpus to increase shelf-life of farm produce (replace if possible)
  • Clarity in tax treatment on income of foreign fund whose fund managers are located in India, as also on transfer pricing for resident and non-resident tax payers
  • Panel set up under Law Commission Chairman on issue of minimum    alternate tax.
  • Life saving emergency Heart-Heritage City Yojana
  • Amrut-Urban Renewal Mission
  • Decentralisation schemes of grass root level parliamentary including ‘Samsadiya Aadarsh Gram Yojana
  • Samshodhit Rashtriya   Swasthya   Bima ‘Pahal’   Yojana    under which cooking gas (LPG) subsidy Yojana credited directly in the Bank account.
  • Indradhanush Yojana for infants under child care
  • Self-attestation of documents scheme
  • Beti-Bachao - Beti-Padhao Yojana
  • Digital- India Yojana
  • ‘International  Yoga  Day’  sponsored  by  UNO , internationally celebrated  on 21st June every year (  incidentally it is  also Dr.K.B.Hedgewar  memorial day ).
  • Atal Pension Yojana for poor in which by paying monthly Rs.210/- from the age 18 up to 60 , the participant would receive Rs.5000/-  per month ,after his death his wife would be entitled to receive the same for the rest of her life, and after her death, her heirs would receive Rs. 8.50 Lacs.
  • Pradhan  Mantri Jan-Suraksha  Bima  Yojana, life would be insured  for Rs.2 lacks with a  annual premium of Rs.12/- .In both these  schemes  more than  6 crore people have  participated.
  • SIT constituted as directed by the Supreme Court to ascertain the facts and initiate penal action against those found guilty in the cases of ‘black money’.  SIT was constituted two and a half years after the Apex court had directed.
  • Soil Health Card for farmers---the target being more than 14 crores farmers
  • Food Map of India   and Food Parks
  • Gokul Mission ---good cow breeding programmes
  • Multi-purpose ‘Smart Card’ for the labor force
  • ‘Unique PF number’ for everyone in the labor force.
  • 500 ‘Incubation Centers’
  • Four ‘Apparel Training Centers’ in the North Eastern States
  • New ‘e.auto rickshaw scheme’
  • Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Memorial in Mumbai in his memory
  • Constitution of ‘Commission for the Welfare of the Nomadic Communities’
  • ‘Vana Bandhu Kalyan Yojana’ for the tribal welfare
  • Establishment of 41 ‘Ekalavya Model Residential Vidyalaya’ and increase in the number of ‘Navodaya Vidyalaya’ from 84 to 115 schools.
  • ‘Ustad’ scheme for Minority communities.
  • On line approvals for projects requiring Environmental NOC’s
  • Appropriate legislations to cover the questions of ‘electronics wastes’, ‘solid waste’, ‘plastic waste’, ‘bio-medical waste’, ‘construction waste’
  • Adoption of 14th Finance Commission recommendation on far-reaching changes in sharing of revenues between the Center and the States .Initiating  the process of  federalization  and accepting the recommendations of  the 14th ‘Finance Commission’,  the Modi Government increased the States’  share from  32%  to  42%  in the Central  Tax-income   distribution.
  • Achieved the target of UID Aadhar Card by covering 82 crore citizens.
  • ‘Mangalyan Mission’ in the field of space research
  • ‘Kiran’ scheme for young women scientists to encourage their research skills
  • Execution of  inter-linking of rivers schemes  launched such as  ‘Pancheshwar  Interlinking ‘ of river  from Nepal –Kali  and  Indian river Sharada ,  similarly river ‘Kane’ and  ‘ Betawa’ in the north  and ‘Daman Ganga’  and  ‘Pinjal’ in the Western India.
  • ‘Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana launched effectively.
  • Over 1.17 crores LPG consumers surrendered their subsidies on the appeal made by the Prime Minister.
  • 1700 outdated Central Enactments annulled.

For  the first time in the administrative  history of India since  independence , ‘Rotational  Secretariat’ of the   Union Government  administration  for the benefit of the citizens of the North Eastern States, was  launched with a special  Union  Minister in charge of the  administrative  affairs  being  appointed.

Attendance of a Union Minister in the North Eastern States every fortnight has been made mandatory by the Prime Minister to take care of and redress the grievances of the citizens there.

Let  us  over- view in  brief ,  some of the distinct  schemes   and some big ideas floated by the Narendra Modi government   during the last two years    .:

 Jan Dhan Yojana:

With a substantial section of society still outside the ambit of the formal financial system, the recent initiative which aims to bring the excluded into the banking system over the next few years is a laudable one.

But legitimate concerns remain. For one, access to banking services may not translate to usage as the poor may simply opt against engaging with the system.

Concerns also exist about the financial viability of maintaining such accounts. But if coverage is extended, especially to the rural poor, then in conjunction with the Aadhar platform, it could facilitate a shift towards cash transfers.

Swachha Bharat:

A brilliant event manager,” L K Advani said of former protégé Narendra Modi in April. On October 2, Modi showed how he is arguably the most skilled mass communicator among Indian leaders.

He chose Mahatma Gandhi’s birth anniversary to pick up a broom and launches the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. Few remembered how Swachh Bharat was in fact the repackaged Nirmal Bharat sanitation programmes launched by the Atal Bihari Vajpayee-led NDA government and Manmohan Singh-led UPA governments.

But Modi is the first PM to take up the cause of cleanliness with such conviction and vigour. He has attempted to make a mass movement out of an issue that affects not only people’s health but is also an attack on social ills like un­tou­chability and manual scavenging.

Make in India:

While successive governments have acknowledged the need to raise the share of manufacturing in GDP, there has been a mismatch between policies and the rhetoric.

The new governments innovative make in India campaign signals its commitment to transforming India into the manufacturing hub of the world.

The importance of manufacturing stems from the fact that the sector can serve as a source of employment for the bulk of unskilled and semi-skilled workers currently engaged in the agricultural sector.

But the success of this initiative depends on the degree to which the government can provide an enabling environment by improving the ease of doing business in India.

Abolition of the Planning Commission:

The abolition of the Planning Commission, announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi from the ramparts of Red Fort, is probably the biggest symbolic break from the Nehruvian socialist era.

The  NITI Aayog  came  into being on 1st January 2015  vide  Cabinet  Resolution No.511/2/1/2015-Cab., marching  towards transforming  India.

Derided as a “parking lot” for political cronies and superannuated civil servants by Arun Shourie, the Commission was often accused of being insensitive to the problems of the society and the states.

While the relevance of the Commission in an increasingly market-oriented economy is debatable, whether the new organization proposed in its place will be more in tune with realities or not remains to be seem.   To what extent it succeeds in making states “equal partners” in the decision-making process remains to be seen.

The  new  Government  initially  took  the  following  measures to establish the right  path- finding which  would  bear  useful  fruits in due course  of  time.

Minimum Government, Maximum Governance- The current Indian government has just about 23 Cabinet Ministers and 23 Ministers of State. The previous Government had about 71 ministers. Now, that's 35% less than that of UPA. Now each minister has his share of perks and facilities. Imagine the amount of Tax Payers' money being saved by just reducing the government size.

A new ministry for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship:

As recently said by Modi, 65% of the Indian population is below 35 years of age i.e. the working population. Now if we want to increase employment or create more jobs - seeking opportunities, we need entrepreneurs. Also for the 65% population to work to their full potential, they need skill- development.

Strong Message to Pakistan over Terrorism:

India and Pakistan were to conduct bilateral foreign Secretary level talks in mid-August last. However, the constant interference of the Pakistan State- sponsored agencies in the politics of Kashmir forced India to call off the talks. Also, the Army posted at Indo-Pak Borders was given the full authority and power to revert to any attack coming their way. (Ceasefire violations).

Narendra Modi also addressed the issue of Terrorism on various international platforms like UN and elsewhere.

Foreign Investments:

Modi’s visit to Japan brought in 35 Billion $ as investment in India over a period of next Five years. Also, Japan promised to contribute towards bullet trains in India. The "Make in India" pitch by Modi too gained Momentum in Japan with Japanese manufacturers interested in investing in India.

India's Uranium deal with Australia:

Australia is set to sign a Nuclear Power deal with India soon to supply around 500 tons of Uranium to India. India's power worries will be eliminated once the deal is signed and implemented with safer nuclear plants providing safer nuclear power.

A line of Top executives visiting India over investment

Many executives like:  1.Satya Nadella (Microsoft), 2. Indra Nooyi (Pepsico),   3. Sheryl Sandberg (Facebook),   4.Jeff Bezos (Amazon), 5. Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook).

Have visited India and met Modi to discuss further developments about their respective firms and how could they contribute to the development of India in technology as well as other sectors.

Modi's “Clean India initiative":

 Modi announced to build toilets for girls in his Independence Day Speech and promote cleanliness in India. Soon, TCS and Bharti pledged Rs. 100 crore each to develop toilets for girls throughout the nation.

‘Make in India ‘campaign:  (esp. in the Defence field).

Mr. Modi's new campaign to encourage International companies to join the ‘Make in India’ movement. It will boost the employment scenario and may also make India a pioneer in the manufacturing sector. Also not to forget the amount of International currency it will add to India's economy.

TATA group and Airbus to work together to manufacture Fighter Jets for the military.

Six   Stealth submarines to be manufactured in India for Rs.50, 000 crore.

Amended Labour Laws:

Mr. Modi recently announced about amendments in the present laws which require at least a month or a two to set up a business. Now, a particular business can be set up just in a day online. No harassment by the government as of like in the license Raj.

  1. Changes to the APMC Act: The govt. asked the state govt. to delist fruits and vegetables from the Agriculture Produce Marketing Committee Act to eliminate middlemen, prevent hoarding and check inflation. Although a small step, but in line with your question.
  2. Abandoning Planning Commission: The PC is a thing of past, maybe good back then in 1950, but today it was just a body to sit up on issues and make hollow plans. A body with more powers, more brains and diversity and lesser interference is needed in this era of importance of strategy and careful progressive planning. In fact the constituents of the Planning Commission were all Maycaulayan  products  drawing  development  ideas  from the  West  and the Society  there , and  effect  and  impose on the Indian  society  here .
  3. NJAC: National Judicial Appointments Commission was the need of the hour to get rid of the partiality and lack of transparency in such an important pillar of the country. The new enactment had aimed at improving judicial system. The Act came into being, but was struck down by the Supreme Court as unconstitutional, null and void.
  4. Bureaucracy/Ministries: Ministers and bureaucrats have been advised to report at 9 AM, a thought hitherto unthinkable. Bureaucrats have been asked to function as Civil Servants and not as the Queen of the Democracy. (Remember ‘Karma Yogi Abhiyan’ in Gujarat?)This is the single most steps that will affect India as a whole. If implemented in letter and spirit, this will remove inefficiency and lack of will among the policy makers and implementers.
  5. in the field of Defence:

The President's visit to Vietnam resulted in India extending $ 100m export credit for defense deals.

Talks with China resulted in discussions on boundary situation, LAC and assurances to find a solution with mutual consent to reduce the hostilities between the rising neighbours.

Defence Cooperation Agreement with the US extended by 10 years. FDI cap rose to 49%.

The PM visits border more often, meets the chiefs regularly and instills pride and a new-found confidence in the army men and people alike, deterring and ridiculing the enemy at the same time.

Narendra Modi talking to the troops in Leh, riling Pakistan in the process

It is unfortunate that our neighbors attitude. They have lost the power to fight a war but they use proxy war. There has been a process of killing innocent people through this proxy war. How many innocents are being killed? The number of people getting killed through the bullets of cowards is more than those killed in conventional wars.

  1. Energy: India is a ‘power’ hungry nation. In order to be developed we have to grow at a rate of more than 10% for the next 30 years or more anyhow. We need energy for it. We are already importing large amounts of coal. Solar and wind alternatives are too expensive and may be a great deal in the future but now.

A deal with Australia has been struck to satisfy our hunger for more fuel.

Talks with Japan have advanced to the final levels. China and the US have agreed to cooperate with civil nuclear deals.

Hydroelectric project agreement has been agreed with Bhutan that will also assist in flood control and irrigation.

Health: Allocations for nationwide health scheme, Namami Gange, Swacchh Bharat Abhiyaan and cooperative efforts with the State governments is a small step in the larger scheme of things i.e. to make a healthy cultured India. Toilets are being built in the villages to tackle a big problem, corporate are embracing it as CSR. 

  1. Make in India: There's no denying that India, a country with demand, demographic dividends and democracy lagging in 134th place in the Ease of doing business Index is a heartbreaking scenario. To raise the standard of living, to make our country a major hub for industries and to embrace progress leaving behind our leftist leanings for good this is the right step ahead. There will be professional training in important sectors, more employment opportunities and the business houses will adopt a city to help in the creation of 100 smart cities.

Relationship with Pakistan: Though Prime Minister Narendra Modi made efforts to strengthen relations with India’s neighboring countries, but he failed to maintain a healthy or diplomatic relationship with Pakistan. The Pakistan army has been violating ceasefire continuously after Modi government took charge, but the government failed to take necessary steps against it. On the Pakistan envoy’s meet with Kashmir separatists, India called off the Secretary level meeting but could not bar Pakistan from talking to separatists through diplomatic pressure.

Digital India:

In his first Independence Day speech on 15th August 2014, the Prime Minister captivated the youth by talking of his dream of a Digital India by 2019.

To begin with, the government was   working on Rs 500-crore (Rs 5 billion) plan, and has already initiated biometric attendance in government offices. Delivery of government services through a unified portal has been planned under it.

Later, Aadhar-based digital life certificates called Jeevan Pramaan were launched for pensioners.  The goal was to simplify the process of pension payments. India must first get a seamless broadband and Wi-Fi connectivity up to the last mile, for the plan to actually work.

Smart Cities:

One of the ideas from the BJP poll manifesto, this saw early action. In its first Budget in July 2014, the government allocated Rs 7,060 crore (Rs 70.60 billion) for smart cities, though the initial estimate for the project was Rs 35,000 crore per annum

The plan was   to build 100 smart cities in India over a period of time. Smart cities are broadly defined as urban spaces that are technologically integrated, well-planned and environment-friendly. It’s a long-term project and could well be spread over 10 years or more, officials say. A flexible PPP (public-private partnership) model is being worked out; many countries including the US, Japan and Singapore, have committed to play a role.

Hindrances are power outages, poor infrastructure and dearth of clean drinking water which may play spoilsport.  (Source:  Business Standard).

Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao: Caring for the Girl Child:

The Prime Minister expressed, that, ‘our Mantra should be: ‘Beta Beti, Ek Samaan’ Let us celebrate the birth of the girl child. We should be equally proud of our daughters. I urge you to sow five plants when your daughter is born to celebrate the occasion’. PM Narendra Modi told the citizens of his adopted village Jayapur. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) was launched by the Prime Minister on 22nd January, 2015 at Panipat, Elsewhere, in Haryana. BBBP Modi   addressed and told about the declining Child Sex Ratio (CSR) and related issues of women empowerment over a life-cycle continuum. It is a tri-ministerial effort of Ministries of Women and Child Development, Health & Family Welfare.

Leveraging the Power of JAM: Jan Dhan, Aadhar and Mobile:

JAM vision, will serve as the bedrock of many initiatives to come. For me, JAM is about Just Achieving Maximum. Maximum value for every rupee spent.

Maximum empowerment for our poor. Maximum technology penetration among the masses.  67 years after Independence, India still had a large part of the population which had no access to banking services. This meant, they had neither any avenues for Savings, nor any opportunity to get institutional credit.  Modi launched the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana on 28th August last, to address this fundamental issue. Within a matter of a few months, this scheme radically transformed lives and futures several lakhs poor, small self-employed working force.

A New Approach to Development: Sensed Aadarsh Gram Yojana:

 Narendra Modi shared his vision for the Sensed Aadarsh Gram Yojana on its launch. ‘One of the biggest problems for us has been that our development model has been supply-driven. A scheme has been prepared in Lucknow, Gandhi Nagar, or Delhi. The same is attempted to be injected. We want to shift this model from supply-driven to demand driven through Aadarsh Gram. There should be an urge developed in the village itself. All we need is to change our mind set. We need to unite people’s hearts. Normally MPs are engaged in political activities, but after this, when they will come...

Unleashing India’s Entrepreneurial Energy:

India has a lot of latent entrepreneurial energy, which needs to be harnessed so that in the words of  Modi ,’ we become a nation of job givers, more than job seekers.’ .The NDA Government  focused on giving a boost to entrepreneurship.

Namami Gange:

‘It's my destiny to serve Maa Ganga’ said PM Modi when he was elected in May 2014 to Parliament from Varanasi, situated on the banks of Ganga in Uttar Pradesh. The River Ganga is important not only for its cultural and spiritual significance but also because it hosts more than 40% of the country’s population. Addressing the Indian community at Madison Square Garden in New York in 2014, the Prime Minister had said, "If we are able to clean it, it will be a huge help for the 40 per cent population of the country. So, cleaning the Ganges is also...

Powering India’s Growth:

India has set off on an ambitious mission, a mission to provide electricity to 18,000 villages which are still in darkness after almost 7 decades of independence. PM Modi, in his Independence Day speech announced that all remaining villages shall be electrified within 1000 days. Rural Electrification is happening at a rapid pace, and is being done in an unbelievably transparent manner. Data on villages being electrified is available to the public through a mobile app and a web dashboard. While we can observe only electricity reaching the villages, it is also important to note that it is accompanied by...

Putting the Indian Economy on a Fast-Track:

India becomes the fastest growing large economy in the world under the NDA Government. It has been a historic year for the Indian Economy. From a period of low growth, high inflation and shrinking production, the NDA Government has not only strengthened our macro-economic fundamentals, but has also propelled the economy to a higher growth trajectory. India’s GDP Growth rocketed to 7.4%, which is the fastest among all the large economies of the world. Various rating agencies and think tanks have predicted that India’s growth would accelerate sharply in the next few years under the NDA Government. Banking on the strong fundamentals.

Empowering Farmers for a Prosperous India:

Multiple steps taken to give a major boost to Agriculture Farmers have always been the back-bone of our country & the NDA Government is striving to strengthen this back-bone of the country through innovative and solid measures. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana will give a boost to productivity by ensuring irrigation facilities. The Vision is to ensure access to some means of protective Irrigation to all agricultural farms. Farmers are being educated about modern irrigation methods to give 'Per Drop More Crop'. Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana has been launched to motivate groups of farmers to take up organic farming. A special scheme has...

Ushering in Unprecedented Transparency:

Transparent and  Corruption-Free Governance reap huge benefits for the nation While the past decade has seen many tales of arbitrary decision making, corruption and discretion rather than policy dictating crucial decisions, the past year has been a welcome change. After the Supreme Court Order cancelled the coal block allocations, Government   acted with unparalleled swiftness to ensure transparent and   timely auctions. Auction and Allotment proceeds from 67 coal blocks have touched 3.35 lakh crores over the life of the mine. The Delhi High Court remarked: “What has convinced us is the fact that the auction process has worked out well. 

Towards a Bright Future:

NDA Government gives massive push to education and   skill development various unique measures have been taken to augment the quality and reach of education. A fully IT based Financial Aid Authority to administer and monitor all education loans and scholarships through Pradhan Mantri Vidyalakshmi Karyakram. Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya Mission for Teacher Training has been launched to enhance the quality of teaching. Global Initiative of Academic Network (GIAN) has been initiated to invite eminent faculty, scientists, and entrepreneurs from premier educational and scientific institutions across the world to teach in the higher educational institutions in the country during summer and winter breaks...

Connecting India like Never Before:

Building the infrastructure for a resurgent India Right from day one, NDA Government’s push to infrastructure has been evident.  Be it Railways, Roads, or Shipping the Government is focusing on augmenting the infrastructure to aid in connectivity. For the first time, Railways budget focused on structural reforms and infrastructure changes. Announcement of new trains, which used to be an annual political gimmick, has now become a routine activity. Numerous passenger-friendly amenities like Wi-Fi on railway stations, passenger helpline (138), security helpline (182), paperless unreserved ticketing, e-catering, mobile security app and CCTV cameras for safety of women, etc have been launched by Railways.

Empowering Different States equally with boost to Cooperative Federalism:

Never before seen ‘Team India’ approach to work for India’s development In a unique departure from the past, PM Modi has stressed on the need to leverage co-operative & competitive federalism to achieve all round growth. For a long time, we have seen a Big Brother relationship between the Centre & States. A ‘One Size Fits All’ approach had been used for years, not taking into account the heterogeneity of different states and their local requirements. The NITI Aayog was formed to further empower and strengthen the states. An important evolutionary change from the past will be replacing a Union-to-State one-way...

Multiple Reforms introduced to ensure all round development. India is embarking on ushering in game-changing reforms through the use of Jan Dhan, Aadhar and Mobile (JAM), a unique combination of three to implement direct transfer of benefits. This innovative methodology will allow transfer of benefits in a leakage-proof, well-targeted and cashless manner. There would be cut in subsidy leakages but not in subsidy themselves. NDA Government has built a national consensus and introduced a Bill to amend the Constitution to implement the Goods and Services Tax (GST). The GST will put in place a state-of-the-art indirect tax system once it is passed.

Towards a Swachh Bharat:

 Dirty and filthy India had been a distracting factor for foreign investors. “A clean India would be the best tribute India could pay to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th   birth anniversary in 2019,” said Shri Narendra Modi as he launched the Swachh Bharat Mission at Rajnath in New Delhi. On 2nd October 2014, Swachh Bharat Mission was launched throughout length and breadth of the country as a national movement. While leading the mass movement for cleanliness, the Prime Minister exhorted people to fulfill Mahatma Gandhi’s dream of a clean and hygienic India. Shri Narendra Modi himself initiated the cleanliness drive at Mandir Marg Police Station. Picking up the broom to clean the dirt,

Narendra Modi as a harbinger of   modern social reforms:

The  above  anthological material is drawn from  several sources,  a  few  are derived  ditto  already  published on  net/ web-sites, only  to establish the  point in the interest  of  students  and  analysts .The  list of  achievements and  important  decisions would throw  light on the extent of coverage  of  the functions  and  services rendered to the  needy.

Narendra Modi -- In 2008 and in 2014:

The purpose of  the  reference made to the address given  by Narendrabhai Modi  in the beginning of the present essay, on his  thoughts and  concepts on  development   which  he shared with  the elite   audience  in  Pune way  back in 2008 , is to present a case of a person ,the then Chief Minister  later to become the Prime Minister of the country  , who  had given serious  thinking to the development of the society and the nation  so  consistently waiting for so long for an appropriate opportunity . Modi’s thoughts in 2008 and in 2014 seem to be quite similar and consistent. He had firm ideas of development.  Economically poor in his  childhood  and  yet the thoughtful  devoted associate of the  Rashtriya  Swayamsevak  Sangh  as  a  ‘Pracharak’ in his  formative  days in life ,  he  had  strenuously  nourished his  plans   and  constructed    the  foundation of  his  ideas on development administration machinery. He then translated it into action confidently. He has  acquired the  qualities like personal  integrity , hard  work , selflessness  and self discipline on  account of his  being in RSS.

The  content in the  speech  referred  to in the beginning of this  essay would  point out as  to  how  does a common man in India visualizes the common difficulties faced  by him in almost  every  field of activity and  how  helpless he finds  himself against all odds.  Narendra Modi sends a signal that no country can develop until the poorest of the poor and the most common citizen becomes a happy citizen on his own.

Modi’s concern and consistency in his ‘development-approach’:

Narendra Modi’s  sincere efforts in initiating the developmental  administration immediately  after  assuming reins  of  power , vindicates  his honest  concern about the  common man.

The  cluster  of   his  long cherished  ideas  on  development  reflected the pinch and  woes  of the poor in the society for  centuries which  were hardly addressed properly by the governance. The  earlier regimes , although honest , tried to repair the breakages  by applying  Western models  of cures , which  proved  unsuccessful and  useless. Modi’s  plans  and thoughts  seem to have originated   from  the  indigenous  and native  soil and  therefore closer to the Indian  individual  and the society here.

It  is  said  that  Modi  should  have  been  at  the  helm  of  affairs  in 1947. Why do citizens feel this way?  It is also  said  that the  country  got  a social   leader as  their  Prime  Minister from  amongst  themselves ,i.e. of the people , by the people  and  for the  people. Narendrabhai Modi had emerged from that school of thought which upholds ‘nation first’ slogan higher than anything else.  Modern Western social scientists look at Modi as a political leader as defined in the West.  This is exactly where these academic stalwarts go wrong. Western political thinkers treat the individual as a political animal contrary to the oriental thinkers who treat the individual as a culturally   integrated indivisible part of the family system. Western  political society  bases  itself on the principle of  rule of law, whereas  there is the principle  of ‘dharma’ ( duty ) , and   ‘ vises  dharma’ applicable to the inter-relationship within ,   in the  oriental Indian  society.  Of course , in no way  I am advocating  any  way  against the prevalence of the present  system of  rule  of law .I  am  merely   pointing out at  the imposition of  a model of political rule  on a society which  has  quite  different roots and  different customs  of  behavior.

Since  this is a  socio-cultural  audit  of  the present  regime , I have  not  referred to the  labyrinth of  maybe  useful  statistics to  ascertain  growth rates   and  the  GDP , various  percentages  and absolute  figures  and  so  on. Audit  is  not merely a  statistical exercise , it has  also  to  examine  a  social agenda . No development can be achieved unless the society and the individual citizen therein too show signs of change in status. Planning  for  economic development  is  required  to  be designed  with  a view  to  enhancing  social  status of the  society. Narendra Modi aims at this social agenda.

The  credit  side of   the  two years of  Modi rule’s  audit  report is good , however , the  debit  side  is  worrisome  and  seems  to have  posed a serious  challenge  to the very  parliamentary culture  in  India , i.e. the  role  of  ‘opposition ‘ .It is  very interesting to note  that in the May 2014 ‘parliamentary’ revolution ,  the  oldest by age  and  longest  by  existence - the national  party viz., INC  had  been badly wiped out from power  and  was  reduced to  a size ,less than one tenth of the House  total ( 44  out of  542 ) .This  pitiable  misery  could  not  be  digested by it and therefore it is not  allowing   the new  ‘Executive’ to  function in  the  House   that  too in the name of  democracy .  INC  despite its  grand  nature has  consistently failed  in the recent  times in  its  national  outlook  and  on  account of     its  miserable  performance in  the  2014 Lok Sabha  elections ,   finds it  difficult to rise  above  party  interests. The Party seems to be   dying, but all others must strive to enliven it lest there would be no opposition left, for the sake of parliamentary democracy. Narendrabhai  Modi’s  slogan  ‘Congress Mukta  Bharat’ aims  at  liberating  the  Party  organization  from  a  dynasty  rule  and   obviously a    particular family clutches and  make it  a true people’s  free Party .Modi’s  is a grand  and  sincere efforts of  killing the  ‘dependency-psyche’ of  the  helpless party-men on  any  particular  family . This  observation is certainly  not a anti Congress  line, it is in the  interest of  the INC  itself  and  of course the  people as  well .

Society is in a situation of ‘no-come-back’.

The  root cause of  the  social  destruction of the Indian  society can  be  traced  back  to  ‘kale  Ingra’ ( black  English ) , producer  Lord  Macaulayan’s  linguistic  policy in India  during  the  first half of 19th  century.  Lord  Macaulay , undoubtedly was  a erudite  scholar,  political administrator who is  credited  with  several  public  administrative  reforms in India esp. Indian Penal  Code/Criminal Procedure  Code . Nevertheless his policies   cannot escape from the blame of de-Indianising the consequent progeny. To quote, “Thomas Babington Macaulay produced his famous Memorandum on (Indian) Education which was scathing on the inferiority (as he saw it) of native (particularly Hindu) culture and learning. He argued that Western learning was superior, and currently could only be taught through the medium of English. There was therefore a need to produce - by English-language higher education -" a class of persons, Indian in blood and color, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect" who could in their turn develop the tools to transmit Western learning in the vernacular languages of India. Among Macaulay's recommendations were the immediate stopping of the printing by the East India Company of Arabic and Sanskrit books and that the Company should not continue to support traditional education beyond "the Sanskrit College at Benares and the Mahomet an College at Delhi" (which he considered adequate to maintain traditional learning) “.He  recommended  the “English  Education Act, 1835  but  it was later mitigated  by  the  British  Government  in  India  and  was  made tradition friendly in India. However, the Macaulayan influence continued, till the present times. (Source:  Wikipedia).

The damage nevertheless was done.  Now, the society has reached a point of irreversible turn.

Identity crisis?

There  is a serious  identity  crisis in  almost  all the branches  of the  governance  and  public  administration .In spite  of  a  most descriptive humane  Constitution  prepared  by  giants  like Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar (  who  was  the Chairman of the Drafting  Committee ), Dr.Rajendra Prasad  ( who was the President of the  Constituent  Assembly ) , Dr.Sachhitanand  Sinha ( who was the temporary  President of the Assembly ) , H.C.Mookarjee  (  who  was the former Vice Chancellor of Calcutta  University  , a Christian  from Bengal , and  Jurist  B.N.Rau (  who   prepared  the first draft of the Constitution ) , there is a spate  of  litigations on the constitutionality of several  provisions  in the Constitution , preferred  by the Executive , the Legislatures ,Constitutional Authorities , the  NGO’s , and   the individuals and the  Public  Interest Litigation ( PIL’s ) on  frivolous  matters  wasting  the time  of the  already overburdened Judiciary  as  well as the State. are in  plenty. There  should  not be any  hesitation on the part of the State-craft  to consider  several  reviews of  various  constitutional  functionaries about  their proper   functioning  in the  interest of parliamentary democracy , sooner or later ,  lest  the democratic  structure  would  collapse.

By  and  large  the  entire  polity  functions  on the basis  of  distrust  against  each  other. By and large the socio-political environment is replete with sarcasm and hypocrisy. By  and  large the media  esp. the electronic   media  functions on  the principle of exaggerations,  preplanned twists, presentation of  news  without   facts  and its verification ,  conducting  interviews without  home-work , obsession  of  litigations , disregard  of   rules , regulations , law moreover  its  willful  violations , anarchic  tendencies on the part  of citizens at  public  places  are abundantly  evident , to mention a few.

Competent  Civil Service:

Narendra Modi firmly believes in the civil service and its capabilities.  He  observes  that all that  is  required  is  an honest  and a  mature political  leadership  with  impeccable personal  integrity. During  the period of  the present  audit , Modi  is on  record  to have  held  meetings  with  various  echelons of  bureaucracy ,   taking  them into  confidence and  passionately  appealing to  their  conscience and  putting  before  them   the  mission  of national  development. It  is  important  to note  that he  had  carried  out a successful  programme of ‘Karma Yogi Abhiyan’  in Gujarat when  he was  the Chief Minister.

Social audit:

The present essayist is not seized of pessimism. Outstanding  achievements  have been  recorded  in  the  field  of  science , engineering  and  technology. The  point  made is that  the  new  regime under the leadership of Narendra  Modi  is  busy in tackling  these  pending   issues.  Economic development takes place any way. Social reforms are a Herculean task which requires a unique leadership. Narendrabhai Modi is catering to this requirement.  His  emphasis  on  Swachha Bharat Abhiyan , Beti Bachao—Beti Padhao , Indradhanush , Atal  Pension  Yojana ,  Dr.Ambedkar Memorial , Pt.Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti  Yojana  etc all are  indicators  of  his   social  concerns  in  ‘nation building’, the  ultimate  goal of  all  the  citizens. Obviously  the  new  regime is  busy in building  an enduring  socio-cultural  infrastructure  for  economic  development.

Mess everywhere and Modi has a long way to go:

May, 2014  parliamentary  revolution heralds  a dawn of a new era of  awakening the anesthetized  Indian society and  remember  the past history and  respond  to the call of  reclaiming the intellectual  leadership of  the world  and  establish peace ,happiness and prosperity (remember  ‘International  Yoga  Day’?) Without ignoring the unavoidable and indispensible   slogan ‘nation first’.

In  view  of  the  above I  for  one  feel  Audit  classification  ‘ A+’  be  accorded.