New Delhi, January 23: Along With President Mukherjee, Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Cabinet ministers, the whole nation today paid tribute to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose on his 120th birth anniversary. Many functions across the country are being organised to mark the occasion. Floral tributes paid by the members of Parliament in the Central Hall of Parliament.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid rich tribute to Netaji. In a series of tweets, PM Modi said, “Netaji's valour played a major role in freeing India from colonialism.” PM Modi further said, “Netaji was a great intellectual who always thought about the interests and well being of the marginalised sections of society.”
PM Modi said, “He feels honoured that his government got the opportunity to declassify files relating to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and fulfill a popular demand pending for decades. Files relating to Netaji are available on netajipapers.gov.in, he added. In his tribute, Information and Broadcasting Minister Venkaiah Naidu described Netaji as a fervent nationalist and patriot who fought defiantly to liberate India.
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, an Indian nationalist or a ‘true patriot’ or a ‘hero’ of India. But Subhash Chandra Bose had a mysterious death. Therefore, the secrets of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was made accessible to the country as everyone should know about his journey which creates patriotism in people and inspires thousands.
It may be recalled that first lot of 100 files relating to Netaji, after their preliminary conservation treatment and digitization, were put in the public domain by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi on 23 January 2016, on the occasion of the 119th birth anniversary of Netaji. The second lot of 50 files, a third lot of 25 files, a 4th lot of 25 files, the 5th lot of 25 files and the 6th lot of 25 files were released subsequently on 29 March, 2016, 29 April, 2016, 27 May, 2016, 29 June and 29th July 2016 respectively. In all, 275 files have been put in public domain till now.
It may be reiterated that in 1997 the National Archives of India had received 990 declassified files pertaining to the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) from the Ministry of Defence. Further, in 2012, 271 files/ items pertaining the Khosla Commission, and 759 files/ items of Justice Mukherjee Commission of Inquiry, in total 1030 files/ items were received from the Ministry of Home Affairs. All these files/ items are already open to the public under the Public Records Rules, 1997.
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose passed Indian Civil Services Exam; elected Congress President in 1938 and 1939; formed a new party All India Forward block; organized Azad Hind Fauj to overthrow British Empire from India. Subhas Chandra Bose, affectionately called as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of Indian freedom struggle. Though Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru have garnered much of the credit for successful culmination of Indian freedom struggle, the contribution of Subash Chandra Bose is no less. He has been denied his rightful place in the annals of Indian history.
He founded Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) to overthrow British Empire from India and came to acquire legendary status among Indian masses. Subhas Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa. His father Janaki Nath Bose was a famous lawyer and his mother Prabhavati Devi was a pious and religious lady. Subhas Chandra Bose was the ninth child among fourteen siblings. Subhas Chandra Bose was a brilliant student right from the childhood. He topped the matriculation examination of Calcutta province and graduated with a First class in Philosophy from the Scottish Churches College in Calcutta.
Bose was strongly influenced by Swami Vivekananda's teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. To fulfill his parent's wishes he went to England in 1919 to compete for Indian Civil Services. In England, he appeared for the Indian Civil Service competitive examination in 1920, and came out fourth in order of merit. However, Subhas Chandra Bose was deeply disturbed by the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre, and left his Civil Services apprenticeship midway to return to India in 1921 After returning to India Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose came under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi and joined the Indian National Congress.
On Gandhiji's instructions, he started working under Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, whom he later acknowledged his political guru. Soon he showed his leadership mettle and gained his way up in the Congress' hierarchy. In 1928 the Motilal Nehru Committee appointed by the Congress declared in favour of Domination Status, but Subhas Chandra Bose along with Jawaharlal Nehru opposed it, and both asserted that they would be satisfied with nothing short of complete independence for India. Subhas also announced the formation of the Independence League.
Subhas Chandra Bose was jailed during Civil Disobedience movement in 1930. He was released in 1931 after the Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed. He protested against the Gandhi-Irwin pact and opposed the suspension of Civil Disobedience movement specially when Bhagat Singh and his associates were hanged. Subash Chandra Bose was soon arrested again under the infamous Bengal Regulation. After a year he was released on medical grounds and was banished from India to Europe.
He took steps to establish centres in different European capitals with a view to promoting politico-cultural contacts between India and Europe. Defying the ban on his entry to India, Subash Chandra Bose returned to India and was again arrested and jailed for a year.
After the General Elections of 1937, Congress came to power in seven states and Subash Chandra Bose was released. Shortly afterwards he was elected President of the Haripura Congress Session in 1938. During his term as Congress President, he talked of planning in concrete terms, and set up a National planning Committee in October that year.
At the end of his first term, the presidential election to the Tripuri Congress session took place early 1939. Subhas Chandra Bose was re-elected, defeating Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya who had been backed by Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress Working Committee. Clouds of World War II were on the horizon and he brought a resolution to give the British six months to hand India over to the Indians, failing which there would be a revolt.
There was much opposition to his rigid stand, and he resigned from the post of president and formed a progressive group known as the Forward Block. Subhas Chandra Bose now started a mass movement against utilizing Indian resources and men for the great war. There was a tremendous response to his call and he was put under house arrest in Calcutta.
In January 1941, Subhas Chandra Bose disappeared from his home in Calcutta and reached Germany via Afghanistan. Working on the maxim that "an enemy's enemy is a friend", he sought cooperation of Germany and Japan against British Empire. In January 1942, he began his regular broadcasts from Radio Berlin, which aroused tremendous enthusiasm in India.
In July 1943, he arrived in Singapore from Germany. In Singapore he took over the reins of the Indian Independence Movement in East Asia from Rash Behari Bose and organised the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army) comprising mainly of Indian prisoners of war. He was hailed as Netaji by the Army as well as by the Indian civilian population in East Asia. Azad Hind Fauj proceeded towards India to liberate it from British rule. Enroute it lliberated Andeman and Nicobar Islands.
The I.N.A. Head quarters was shifted to Rangoon in January 1944. Azad Hind Fauj crossed the Burma Border, and stood on Indian soil on March 18,1944. However, defeat of Japan and Germany in the Second World War forced INA to retreat and it could not achieve its objective. Subhas Chandra Bose was reportedly killed in an air crash over Taipeh, Taiwan (Formosa) on August 18, 1945.
Though it is widely believed that he was still alive after the air crash not much information could be found about him.