Chandigarh, June 12: Diabetes nowadays is the most common disease in India due to less physical activity and having more junk food. 7.3% people of 14 states and 1 union territory are now suffering from this hazardous disease.
Notably, the overall prevalence of diabetes in 14 states of India including Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, northeastern phase included Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, Meghalaya, Punjab and 1 union territory Chandigarh is 7.3%. However, amongst these 15 states, the highest prevalence of diabetes in Chandigarh is 14%.
The results were of an ongoing study, conducted by the Indian Council of Medical Research-India Diabetes study, and published last week in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology stated that the total of 7.3% people of 14 states and 1 union territory are suffering from diabetes. The study also found that overall prevalence of diabetes in Chandigarh is 14% which is the highest amongst other states. The city’s 27% poor were also found having diabetes.
Interestingly, Physical inactivity, excessive intake of junk food that is rich in carbohydrates are the two reasons due to which diabetes occurs. Genetic predisposition and a large number of the migratory population could be other reasons behind diabetes.
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY- THE LANCET DIABETES & ENDOCRINOLOGY:
The overall prevalence of diabetes in all 15 states of India was 7·3% (95% CI 7·0–7·5). The prevalence of diabetes varied from 4·3% in Bihar (95% CI 3·7–5·0) to 10·0% (8·7–11·2) in Punjab and was higher in urban areas (11·2%, 10·6–11·8) than in rural areas (5·2%, 4·9–5·4; p<0·0001) and higher in mainland states (8·3%, 7·9–8·7) than in the Northeast (5·9%, 5·5–6·2; p<0·0001). Overall, 1862 (47·3%) of 3938 individuals identified as having diabetes had not been diagnosed previously.
States with higher per-capita GDP seemed to have a higher prevalence of diabetes (eg, Chandigarh, which had the highest GDP of US$ 3433, had the highest prevalence of 13·6%, 12.8–15·2). In rural areas of all states, diabetes was more prevalent in individuals of higher SES. However, in urban areas of some of the more affluent states (Chandigarh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu), diabetes prevalence was higher in people with lower SES.
The overall prevalence of prediabetes in all 15 states was 10·3% (10·0–10·6). The prevalence of prediabetes varied from 6·0% (5·1–6·8) in Mizoram to 14·7% (13·6–15·9) in Tripura and the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was generally higher than the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance. Age, male sex, obesity, hypertension, and family history of diabetes were independent risk factors for diabetes in both urban and rural areas.
DIABETES: ITS SYMPTOMS, EFFECTS, PREVENTIVE STEPS
Diabetes is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose, which leads over time to serious damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. The most common is type-2 diabetes, usually in adults, which occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn’t make enough insulin
Symptoms of Diabetes are Excessive excretion of urine, thirst, constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes and fatigue.
Over time, diabetes can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves Adults with diabetes have a 2-3-fold increased risk of heart attacks and strokes Combined with reduced blood flow, neuropathy (nerve damage) in feet increases chance of foot ulcers, infection and eventual need for limb amputation Diabetic retinopathy is an important cause of blindness, and occurs as a result of long-term accumulated damage to the small blood vessels in the retina. 2.6% of global blindness can be attributed to diabetes Diabetes is among the leading causes of kidney failure
Simple lifestyle measures have been shown to be effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes. People should: Achieve and maintain healthy body weight Be physically active – at least 30 minutes of regular, moderate-intensity activity on most days. More activity is required for weight control Eat a healthy diet, avoiding sugar and saturated fats intake; and Avoid tobacco use – smoking increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases Diagnosis and Treatment Early diagnosis can be accomplished through relatively inexpensive testing of blood sugar. Treatment of diabetes involves diet and physical activity along with lowering blood glucose and the levels of other known risk factors that damage blood vessels. Tobacco use cessation is also important to avoid complications.