Source: News Bharati English14 Jul 2017 16:54:55

New Delhi, July 14: Wow! A team of Indian astronomers have identified an extremely large super cluster of galaxies and have named it Saraswati. The supercluster of 43 galaxies is located in the direction of constellation Pisces and is one of the largest known structures in the universe which may contain the mass equivalent to over 20 million billion suns.

According to Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics IUCAA, this is one of the largest-known structures in the nearby Universe and is at a distance of 4,000 million light years from us, and stretching over 600 million light years.

This novel discovery is being published in the latest issue of The Astrophysical Journal, the premier research journal of the American Astronomical Society.

Large-scale structures in the Universe are found to be hierarchically assembled, with galaxies, together with associated gas, and dark matter, being clumped in clusters, which are organized with other clusters, smaller groups, filaments, sheets and large empty regions ("voids") in a pattern called the "Cosmic web" which spans the observable Universe.

Superclusters are the largest coherent structures in the Cosmic Web. A Supercluster is a chain of galaxies and galaxy clusters, bound by gravity, often stretching to several hundred times the size of clusters of galaxies, consisting of tens of thousands of galaxies. This newly-discovered 'Saraswati' supercluster, for instance, extends over a scale of 600 million light-years and may contain the mass equivalent of over 20 million billion suns.

When astronomers look far away, they see the Universe from long ago, since light takes a while to reach us. The Saraswati supercluster is observed as it was when the Universe was 10 billion years old. This novel discovery is being published in the latest issue of The Astrophysical Journal, the premier research journal of the American Astronomical Society.

Large-scale structures in the Universe are found to be hierarchically assembled, with galaxies, together with associated gas, and dark matter, being clumped in clusters, which are organized with other clusters, smaller groups, filaments, sheets and large empty regions ("voids") in a pattern called the "Cosmic web" which spans the observable Universe.

Superclusters are the largest coherent structures in the Cosmic Web. A Supercluster is a chain of galaxies and galaxy clusters, bound by gravity, often stretching to several hundred times the size of clusters of galaxies, consisting of tens of thousands of galaxies. This newly-discovered 'Saraswati' supercluster, for instance, extends over a scale of 600 million light-years and may contain the mass equivalent of over 20 million billion suns.

When astronomers look far away, they see the Universe from long ago, since light takes a while to reach us. The Saraswati supercluster is observed as it was when the Universe was 10 billion years old. With this discovery, scientists hope that their work will help to shed light on the perplexing question that how such extreme entity formed billions of years in the past.

The discovery of these extremely large structures thus forces astronomers into re-thinking the popular theories of how the Universe got its current form, starting from a more-or-less uniform distribution of energy after the Big Bang. In recent years, the discovery of the present-day Universe is being dominated by "Dark Energy", which behaves very differently from Gravitation, might play a role in the formation of these structures.

Interestingly, Somak Raychaudhury, currently Director of IUCAA, Pune, who is a co-author of this paper, also discovered the first massive Supercluster of galaxies on this scale (the "Shapley Concentration"), during his PhD research at the University of Cambridge. In his paper, published in the journal 'Nature' in 1989, he had named the supercluster after the American astronomer Harlow Shapley, in recognition of his pioneering survey of galaxies, from the Southern hemisphere, in which this massive super-structure was first imaged, way back in 1932.

Joydeep Bagchi from IUCAA, the lead author of the paper and co-author Shishir Sankhyayan (PhD scholar at IISER, Pune) said, ''We were very surprised to spot this giant wall-like supercluster of galaxies, visible in a large spectroscopic survey of distant galaxies, known as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (see figure above). This supercluster is clearly embedded in a large network of cosmic filaments traced by clusters and large voids. Previously only a few comparatively large superclusters have been reported, for example, the 'Shapley Concentration' or the 'Sloan Great Wall' in the nearby universe, while the 'Saraswati' supercluster is far more distant one. Our work will help to shed light on the perplexing question; how such extreme large scale, prominent matter-density enhancements had formed billions of years in the past when the mysterious Dark Energy had just started to dominate structure formation.''